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Archive for May, 2012

This week we have two very different kinds of garden photos. Linda sent in a fitting entry – a Memorial Day garden theme incorporating an eagle, stars, and poppies. Linda, you never cease to amaze me with your ideas! Our other photo comes courtesy of Diane, who captured (photographically speaking) a baby bunny nest while working in the demo gardens. Yes, I know that rabbits can be a garden pest, but you have to love looking at the babies!

 

 

 

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They say that new plants take three years to establish but in the case of these three woody ornamental shrubs in my yard, five years is the magic number. These three shrubs, planted in 2007, are stunning performers in my garden this year. I love using flowering shrubs for three season interest and ease of maintenance.  A bit of organic fertilizer or compost is all I have used on these shrubs, usually applied early in spring prior to blooming.

Weigela florida "Alexandra"  Wine and Roses

This Weigela was loaded with blooms about two weeks ago. I have included a close up of the cone shaped blossoms.

Sambucus nigara 'Eva' Blace Lace Elderberry

Gorgeous creamy pink blossoms complement dark purple foliage on this stunning Proven Winner Selection Sambucus nigara ‘Eva’ Blace Lace Elderberry. I have let it grow free form rather than prunning.

Physocarpus opulifolius ‘Mindia’ Ninebark ‘Coppertina’

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Pallet Project

I certainly can not take credit for this creative idea and don’t really know where it originated from.  I saw a photo on the web and thought this is perfect for me to do for the class I’m giving this evening on Vertical Gardening at Riverside school.

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In the past two weeks I’ve had several people in Irish Hills, Clinton Township and Monroe come up to me and ask me what’s happening to their Japanese Maple.  Even my husband made a remark about it because he thought ours was dying.  Relax, it’s not a serious problem.  It’s frost damage. About two weeks ago we had that 20+ degree night and frost the next morning.  This is the result.  If your tree is looking like  the photo below it got hit with the frost.  To improve its appearance you can take your shears or pruner and cut back the damage leaves.  It may leave a tiny bare area but that will look better than those frost bitten foliage.  No need to prune it back to the hardwood, just trim off the stem and dead foliage.  It’s time-consuming, but it will look so much better.  I wanted to post this for other public readers who follow our Blog.

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As nobody wanted to “pin the tail on the peony” in last week’s Plant Quiz, I thought we would make it a little easier.  This time the quiz will be to identify all the plants in Linda’s vertical garden exhibit.  This should be a no-brainer, as we are all busy planting most of the stuff featured in the photo…right?

Please enter your answers as a comment.  Try to give the botanical as well as the common name.  To achieve advanced Master Gardener status, you may dazzle us all with the variety and how you use these plants in your garden. Linda and Jennie will be the deciding authorities in case of a dispute.

I snapped this photo at the Master Gardener booth at last Sunday’s annual plant sale at the Expo Center.  Linda was showcasing the association by offering her popular vertical gardening series, ably assisted by Diane.

Vertical Garden on Cedar Backdrop

How many of you have tried planting a vertical garden?  I think Linda would like some feedback.  Maybe you have some photos of your creation you would like to share?

The winner can claim the usual bragging rights!

Frank.

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FotoFriday is a day late this week due to computer gremlins, but is it ever worth the wait! Linda sent photos that demonstrate using plantings and hardscape to create a motif. Colors and textures balance and unify to create a visual theme. These images are sure to bring out your own creative landscaping mojo!

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This is the second part of what turned out to being a magazine length article on the recent 2 1/2 hour pruning session MSUE Fruit  Tree Specialist, Bob Tritten gave at the Stanger farm.

Getting a bird’s eye view

Pruning often strikes terror in the heart of the average backyard orchardist. The most common fear is damaging or worse still, killing the tree by cutting off too much! Pruning is an art, but it can be learned by watching a pro in action to see how far you can go and why certain things are done.  Then it is a matter of practice and common sense. The results are well worth the effort in more manageable and productive fruit trees.

Decision time – what to keep.

The most often asked question at the Conservation District plant and tree sale, is “how do I prune up my new fruit tree!”  I hope the following points will help, as they are a brief summary of what Bob was asked during his presentation.

If you still want more information, there is an excellent chapter in the Master Gardener handbook on fruit tree pruning – or go online and do a search of MSUE or any extension site for further research.

Why  prune:    Fruit trees unlike ornamentals, are pruned to make them more manageable, promote healthy growing conditions for tree and fruit, and more productive.  While some pears and apples can be seen in an espaliered form as a landscape accent, this is not the desired method of pruning for a backyard orchard.  Fruit trees need air and light for optimum fruit development and a reduction of fungal diseases associated with poor air movement.

When to Prune:   This was the most asked question. Each tree should be pruned annually.   Bob recommends March and beginning April as being the optimum timeframe for pome fruit, (apples and pears) – while late April to early May as being acceptable for stone fruits (peaches and apricots).  The late winter or early spring cold weather offers ideal conditions for this kind of work. Most commercial orchards start this process in late December or early January, due to the large volume of trees needing attention.  It is best not to prune during active budding.

Heart shaped young peach

What to Prune:   Bob stressed the need for developing a strong structural skeleton (scaffold) for the tree to be the most productive.  He recommends a modified central leader form for all pome fruits and an open center,  heart shaped structure for stone fruits.  After making the choice of the branches to keep to establish the scaffold, the annual pruning shifts to being a maintenance chore.  Dead wood, watersprouts, suckers, inward growing and crossing branches all should be removed.

Watersprouts can be removed up to mid summer.  This should be done religiously, as they take up sugars that the tree could otherwise put into fruit production.

Pruning Watersprouts

   

Bob demonstrated an alternate method of watersprout removal, by leaving some as stubs to provide some shading leafing.  These would then be removed the following year.

He cautioned against clipping the ends of the branches when shaping the tree, as this just leads to excessive sprouting.

Keeping stubs for shade

What about Frost Damage:   With recent low temperature hovering around 33 deg, this is not a problem for the buds.  But when this session was conducted a little over a month ago, it was.  Two successive nights of 26 to 29 deg frost had caused considerable damage to the buds.  The lowest temperature buds can tolerate for a short period is 28 deg without irreversible damage.  When the bud dies, there is no fruit!  Using a small pocket knife, he carefully pared the surface of a couple of random buds to reveal a thin brown layer – the sign of frost damage and a dead bud.

What about Fruiting:   Surprisingly dwarf stock trees begin to fruit within three (3) years.  Bob advised removing this fruit to allow the tree time to establish its structure.  Peaches are relatively short lived trees – about ten (10) years is the average productive life, as they are susceptible to a variety of killing cankers.

Peach fruiting branches

Care should therefore be given to preserving the following year’s fruiting branches when pruning.  The same applies to pome fruit – so just do not hack away as if you were pruning an ornamental!  Most fruit trees will self-thin if conditions are not ideal for fruit development.  Fruit clusters should be examined and thinned according to branch strength.  It is important there be leaf clusters nearby for maximum sugar uptake.

What about Renovation:   A frequent topic of concern to the backyard orchardist who has inherited an overgrown, neglected fruit tree and wants to return it to productivity.  Bob’s approach is to take a long view of the tree, particularly one not grown on dwarf or semi-dwarf stock – and see if the scaffold branches can be identified.  An old tree grown on regular stock will require ladder work to harvest and prune.  So a decision has to be made if the tree is to be saved outside of aesthetic or sentimental landscape appeal.

Identifying scaffold branches

If it is to be renovated, start by removing the usual dead wood, watersprouts, ingrowing and crossing branches – but nothing major.  This work is just to expose the bones of the tree, and should not be more than 20% by volume. The remaining renovation pruning should be over a three (3) year period and with no more than 30% removed annually.  The object of all this work is to improve the scaffold branches of the tree.  Care should be taken to ensure that the tree has adequate leafing branches to provide the sugars for regrowth purposes.  You should not expect or encourage any fruit production during the initial renovation process.   After the tree has been stabilized, fruiting should resume.

Watersprouts can be trained to fill in bare spouts by bending them into place with ropes secured by stakes.  To reduce the height of a mature neglected tree, Bob recommended making sure that there are sufficient well placed lower branches to form a scaffold.  Often viewing the tree from a ladder will add a better dimensional picture of what is to remain and what has to go.  This is the reason why well placed watersprouts may be essential to restoring the shape of the tree.

What about Branch Kerfing:   Stressing the need to have a scaffold branch at the correct angle to the trunk, Bob demonstrated this unusual technique on a 2″ dia limb that bending with a rope and stakes would be impossible.  He made five (5) closely spaced saw kerfs half way through the underneath side of the branch.  With some of the tension removed within the wood, he was able to bend and pull down the branch without breaking.  The bent branch was then secured with a rope and stake.  The wounds heal in about a season and do not require any form of dressing.

Kerf cuts on branch

Rule to remember:   Bob’s mantra is you want to be able to throw a football through a well pruned fruit tree!  Or have a good sized bird fly through the center.  Open and airy are the two words he stressed throughout his presentation!

Jennie will do a follow up article with more  specifics on the pruning and care of the common fruit trees we find in our backyard orchards.

Once again we should thank the Conservation District for sponsoring events like this for the education of the general public.  This community involvement is all the more important, as we no longer have an extension walk in diagnostic clinic. Our thanks also go to Jennie Stanger for teaching these annual classes and for hosting this special guest.

Frank.

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